Other investigators have shown that In the presence of appropriate biological substances, differentiated cells from one lineage can be triggered to express genes from another lineage. These experiments, prior to 1997, suggested that in mammalian cells, differentiation can be reprogrammed.

In 1997, one of the most exciting insights into differentiation emerged from the cloning of Dolly the sheep (Wilmut, Schnieke et al. 1997). The cloning of Dolly from terminally differentiated adult mammary cells shattered the existing dogma that cell differentiation was irreversible.

Dolly (1996-2003)

Dolly the sheep was the first mammal cloned from an adult somatic cell, specifically a mammary cell, using nuclear transfer technology. Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell, and others at the Roslin Institute were leaders of this groundbreaking project.

The cloning process that produced Dolly.

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