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Sunday, April 12

  1. page Module 4 - Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer edited ... Wilmut, I., A. E. Schnieke, et al. (1997). "Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult…
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    Wilmut, I., A. E. Schnieke, et al. (1997). "Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells." Nature 385(6619): 810-813.
    YamadaYamada et al., (2014), "Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to diploid pluripotent stem cells." Nature, 510(7506):533-6.
    Yamaguchi,YamaguchiYamaguchi, Shinpei, et
    [[include component="page" wikiName="stemcellbioethics" page="footer"]]
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  2. page Module 4 - Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer edited ... Anselmo, S. "Independent Review Consulting, Inc.CA, ." http: www.irb-irc.com. Chamo…
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    Anselmo, S. "Independent Review Consulting, Inc.CA, ." http: www.irb-irc.com.
    Chamorro, C., J. A. Falcon, et al. (2009). "Controversial points in organ donor management." Transplant Proc 41(8): 3473-3475.
    ChungChungChung et al.,
    Darwin, S. F. (1914). Eugenics Review April 1914.
    Di Berardino, M. A. (2001). "Animal cloning--the route to new genomics in agriculture and medicine." Differentiation 68(2-3): 67-83.
    ...
    Wakayama, T., Y. Shinkai, et al. (2000). "Cloning of mice to six generations." Nature 407(6802): 318-319.
    Wilmut, I., A. E. Schnieke, et al. (1997). "Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells." Nature 385(6619): 810-813.
    YamadaYamadaYamada et al.,
    Yamaguchi, Shinpei, et al. (2013) "Dynamics of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine during germ cell reprogramming." Cell research 23: 329-339.
    [[include component="page" wikiName="stemcellbioethics" page="footer"]]
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  3. page Module 4 - Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer edited ... Schneider (2010). "Use of embryonice stem cells unethical." Kentucky. Takahashi, K.…
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    Schneider (2010). "Use of embryonice stem cells unethical." Kentucky.
    Takahashi, K. and S. Yamanaka (2006). "Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors." Cell 126(4): 663-676.
    Tachibana,TachibanaTachibana, M., et
    Thuan, N. V., S. Kishigami, et al. (2010). "How to improve the success rate of mouse cloning technology." J Reprod Dev 56(1): 20-30.
    Wakayama, T., Y. Shinkai, et al. (2000). "Cloning of mice to six generations." Nature 407(6802): 318-319.
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    2:52 am
  4. page Module 7 - Human-Animal Chimeras edited ... Could chimeras provide a model to study human neurological diseases? It remains unclear wheth…
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    Could chimeras provide a model to study human neurological diseases?
    It remains unclear whether human-animal chimeras will offer a model for examining human neural/behavioral development, yet these chimeras certainly would provide proof of principle that human cells can contribute to tissue formation or repair of damaged tissue in a nonhuman animal. It is not the primary objective, however, of these experiments to transfer emergent psychological characteristics from humans to animals and certainly not from animals to humans. But we should keep in mind that, similar to the human-mouse blood chimeras, such a model could provide an excellent system to study human neurological diseases.
    ...
    and learning.
    Return to Top
    human-chimera_ethicsEthical concerns raised by human-animal chimeras
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    examining basic questions in neural development and circuitry and
    developing new therapeutic protocols for treating various neurological diseases (Behringer 2007).
    ...
    an animal.
    Why did the National Academy of Sciences need to consider the bioethical issue of human-animal chimeras?
    Dr. Irving Weissman of Stanford University proposed in 2002 to insert human neural stem cells into the brain of a mouse embryo whose own neural stem cells were dysfunctional. He did this in an attempt to understand how human neurons develop in the brain and in hopes of developing stem cell therapies that could lead to curing Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s disease.
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    Will adding human genes or cells to non-primate mammals somehow alter their moral status?
    With respect to moral status, does the nature of the introduced human genes or cells, and their target organs in the chimeric animal, matter?
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    Cyranoski, 2014)? Please link
    The International Society for Stem Cell Research commented on such issues, in its 2006 Guidelines for the Conduct of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research (Knowles 2003) http://www.isscr.org/GuidelinesforhESCResearch/2917.htm):
    There is widespread belief that it is highly unlikely that human neurons could proliferate and structure themselves in an animal brain in such a way as to create, for example, human consciousness in a mouse. Yet, most consequences and outcomes of creating these chimeras remain unexplored.
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    Chen, Y., Z. X. He, et al. (2003). "Embryonic stem cells generated by nuclear transfer of human somatic nuclei into rabbit oocytes." Cell Res 13(4): 251-263.
    Crowe, M.B., (1977) The Changing Profile of the Natural Law. Nijhoff. pp. 192-245;
    CyranoskiCyranoskiCyranoski (2014). “Rudimentary
    Erdo, F., C. Buhrle, et al. (2003). "Host-dependent tumorigenesis of embryonic stem cell transplantation in experimental stroke." J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 23(7): 780-785.
    Ersek, A., J. S. Pixley, et al. (2010). "Persistent circulating human insulin in sheep transplanted in utero with human mesenchymal stem cells." Exp Hematol 38(4): 311-320.
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  5. page Module 5 - Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells edited ... to integrate vectors in the genome with the capacity to subsequently remove these vectors from…
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    to integrate vectors in the genome with the capacity to subsequently remove these vectors from the genome.
    It is difficult to predict which one of these methods will translate into a safe and effective application of iPS cells in therapy.
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    2015 for review- please link).review).
    Sheng Ding
    Sheng Ding and his colleagues use combinatorial chemistry to develop large libraries of small molecules and screen them for their ability to influence cell fate in a variety of ways. Their methods include holding stem cells in a state of self-renewal, reprogramming cells to an earlier developmental state, or precisely directing differentiation of stem cells to desired lineages. By using chemical tools, Ding and his colleagues are succeeding in influencing the course of stem cell biology.
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    Exhibit high telomerase activity (Marion and Blasco 2010)
    Table 1. Comparison of iPS cells (iPSC) and embryonic stem cells (ESC) according to various parameters
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    review see
    de

    de
    Lázaro, et al., 2014- please link).2014).
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    ethical_considerationsEthical considerations of iPS cell technology
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    referencesReferences
    Deng, J. M., K. Satoh, et al. (2011). "Generation of viable male and female mice from two fathers." Biol Reprod 84(3): 613-618.
    de Lázarode Lázaro, Irene,
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    Release 185:37-44.
    Higuchi,

    HiguchiHiguchi,
    Akon, et
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    95: 26-42.
    Hochedlinger,

    HochedlingerHochedlinger,
    K. and
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    18, 20.
    Loike,

    LoikeLoike,
    J. and
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    8th 2009.
    Marion,

    MarionMarion,
    R. M.
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    20(2): 190-196.
    Mitsui,

    MitsuiMitsui,
    K., Y.
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    113(5): 631-642.
    Okita,

    OkitaOkita,
    K., T.
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    313-317.
    Takahashi, TanabeTakahashi, K., K.
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    131(5): 861-872.
    Takahashi,

    TakahashiandYTakahashi,
    K. and
    Welstead, G. G., T. Brambrink, et al. (2008). "Generating iPS cells from MEFS through forced expression of Sox-2, Oct-4, c-Myc, and Klf4." Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE(14).
    Youtube (2009). Obama's Speech on Stem Cell. Obama Reverses Stem Cell Ban.
    Youtube (2010). Stem Cell Debate. Dicussing Embryonic Stem Cells.
    Yu,YuYu, J., M.
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    318(5858): 1917-1920.
    Zhou,

    ZhouZhou,
    H., S.
    [[include component="page" wikiName="stemcellbioethics" page="Footer"]]
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Wednesday, April 1

  1. page Module 4 - Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer edited ... Return to Top SCNT_Methodology_Applied_to_Human_Stem_CellsSCNT methodology applied to human s…
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    Return to Top
    SCNT_Methodology_Applied_to_Human_Stem_CellsSCNT methodology applied to human stem cells
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    As described above Please link to NOTE #1 above new
    SCNT method applied to produce human embryos and stem cells
    Oocyte donors, all of whom that had at least one previous successful donation cycle, underwent routine controlled ovarian hyperstimulation typically used in most infertility procedures. The donor cells were primary adult fibroblast cell lines isolated from a 2–3-mm skin biopsy sample obtained from two healthy male volunteers.
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  2. page Module 4 - Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer edited ... In SCNT, the genetic material of a somatic (body) cell from one individual and the enucleated …
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    In SCNT, the genetic material of a somatic (body) cell from one individual and the enucleated egg from another, in the first days of human embryological development, together form a blastocyst capable of generating a stem cell line. As cloned cells, these stem cells could be used for a range of potential medical treatments without the risk of rejection which remains a current complication in organ transplantation.
    A significant ethical issue with SCNT requires the destruction of the human embryo. (Refer back to Module 2: Introduction to stem cell bioethics) While some religious authorities view the SCNT embryo as a human life no different from a life created from sperm and egg, in reality, the only way an early SCNT embryo can develop into a fetus is if someone were to implant the pre-embryo into a human surrogate - an action the US government is not willing to condone.
    Above A
    A
    recent paper
    The scientific motivation by Dr. Shoukhrat Mitalipov to apply SCNT to human beings was not to clone a human being. Rather, it was to obtain patient-derived embryonic stem cell lines that can be used to study and potentially treat various human diseases. In fact, their group chose to generate stem cells from a patient with a genetic defect called Leigh syndrome. These embryonic stem cells derived from the baby with Leigh syndrome will be used to consider various types of therapeutic stem cell repair without the fear of transplant rejection because the cells will be obtained from the patient. This type of stem cell application to specific patients could lead to important future treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, ALS, and Alzheimer’s, as well as heart and liver diseases.
    Since this publication, two more articles have confirmed the capacity to apply SCNT to human cells. Chung et al., 2014 reported that SCNT can be used to generate embryonic stem cells from a thirty-five and seventy-five year old adult thereby avoiding the need to use fetal cells as the donor cells in SCNT. They propose that age-related changes such as shortened telomeres and oxidative DNA damage do not hinder successful reprogramming of elderly adult donor nuclei. In a second article, Yamada et al., 2014 used histone acetylation inhibitors to allow for the oocyte to remove epigenetic modifications of the donor DNA and were able to generate for the first time an embyronic stem cell line obtained from a female patient who has type I diabetes.
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  3. page Module 4 - Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer edited ... In SCNT, the genetic material of a somatic (body) cell from one individual and the enucleated …
    ...
    In SCNT, the genetic material of a somatic (body) cell from one individual and the enucleated egg from another, in the first days of human embryological development, together form a blastocyst capable of generating a stem cell line. As cloned cells, these stem cells could be used for a range of potential medical treatments without the risk of rejection which remains a current complication in organ transplantation.
    A significant ethical issue with SCNT requires the destruction of the human embryo. (Refer back to Module 2: Introduction to stem cell bioethics) While some religious authorities view the SCNT embryo as a human life no different from a life created from sperm and egg, in reality, the only way an early SCNT embryo can develop into a fetus is if someone were to implant the pre-embryo into a human surrogate - an action the US government is not willing to condone.
    Note #1Above A recent
    The scientific motivation by Dr. Shoukhrat Mitalipov to apply SCNT to human beings was not to clone a human being. Rather, it was to obtain patient-derived embryonic stem cell lines that can be used to study and potentially treat various human diseases. In fact, their group chose to generate stem cells from a patient with a genetic defect called Leigh syndrome. These embryonic stem cells derived from the baby with Leigh syndrome will be used to consider various types of therapeutic stem cell repair without the fear of transplant rejection because the cells will be obtained from the patient. This type of stem cell application to specific patients could lead to important future treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, ALS, and Alzheimer’s, as well as heart and liver diseases.
    ...
    al., 2014 (Please link) reported that
    ...
    al., 2014 (Please link) used histone
    From a scientific perspective, this report represents a mileston in understanding of human nuclear reprogramming. On the other hand, it is clear that human SCNT research has progressed slowly because of the ethical concerns how to obtain human oocytes for these studies and where it is ethical to compensate women to donate eggs for stem cell research egg. For more information see (Hyun and Tesar 2011).
    Thought questions
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    When we use cloning technologies, is the resulting cell line, or the resulting organism (if allowed to develop) really an exact genetic copy of the donor cell? Why or why not?
    In SCNT, the donor cell contributing the genetic information (i.e., the nucleus) can be of embryonic, fetal, or adult origin. The fact that SCNT can use adult cells is one of the most innovative discoveries regarding this technology, in part because it obviates the need for sperm to generate an organism. A wide variety of differentiated adult cells, such as those obtained from skin, fat, or blood have served as donor cells for nuclei to be implanted in the enucleated oocyte.
    ...
    et al., 2013).(Please link)2013).
    {CloningAndFertilization.png} Fertilization and cloning. (Source: Nature)
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    al., 2014). Please link Stem cells
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    (Salvatori, 2014). Please link
    .
    One

    One
    example of
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    and Trucco. 2015-Please link).2015).
    Sadly, we are years away from knowing if this SCNT technology will truly be clinically effective for large numbers of people. Scientists have an important obligation to reduce hype and to help the public understand that the process of discovery is long and costly. The new technology will have to undergo the expensive and time consuming stages of Phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trials before the FDA will grant approval of the technology.
    Unlike the proposed stem cell therapy mentioned above, organ or cell transplantation that currently uses organs from surrogate donors requires that the recipient be maintained on one or more anti-rejection drugs such as cyclosporine, prednisone, azathioprine, or tacrolimus (FK506). These anti-rejection drugs often have powerful, disruptive, and debilitating effects. Cyclosporine, one of the most frequently used anti-rejection drugs, must typically be taken by a transplant recipient for the remainder of his or her lifetime. As a predicted outcome of stem cell therapy, being able to be treated without reliance on anti-rejection drugs - both directly after surgery and on a long term basis – would be a much desired improvement in the quality of life for patients.
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    10:14 am

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